請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序 [論壇 - 新手村]


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請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
查了一下 init 之後在 /etc下不曉得是哪一個取代 init 或是 inittab
而 rc也都是目錄檔

init --> /lib/systemd/systemd 也沒有看到對應的 /etc/systemd

請問這個要如何 tracking 或是開機怎麼看到流程的 log還是?

或是 Ubuntu Doc哪邊有明確的說明, 請再告知, thanks.

7/27 16:01:28
應用擴展 工具箱
回覆: 請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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我目前沒有很熟悉 Systemd,只有簡略的概念,

所以只憑我目前模糊的印象,貼給你相關的連結或關鍵字,

讓您有個探索的起點


* $ man 1 init

* 關鍵字查詢: systemd debian

* 關鍵字查詢: systemd ubuntu

* 關鍵字查詢: systemd archlinux

* 維基百科 / Systemd

* 維基百科 / init


以前在這個論壇有整理一些連結,放在「Ubuntu 文件資源 / [索引] 開機流程


================================================================================


執行


file /sbin/init




顯示


/sbin/init: symbolic link to /lib/systemd/systemd



================================================================================

執行


file /lib/systemd/systemd




顯示


/lib/systemd/systemd: ELF 64-bit LSB pie executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, BuildID[sha1]=968ffe3f6622fa1919d1f1f119041e469ae98694, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, stripped



================================================================================

我粗略了解到的是,Systemd 是用 C 語言寫成的,不是以前單純使用「Shell Script」的方式來操作。

所以要建議您去探索的方向是「Systemd」的操作方式。

================================================================================

以上提供參考

報告完畢


7/27 17:14:16
應用擴展 工具箱
回覆: 請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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謝謝分享

我想知道的大概是類似這方面的,
先前觀念大概在 /boot kernel 還是可以想像出來,硬跟軟之間應該還是會有位址轉換概念
https://www.796t.com/article.php?id=237300

https://dywang.csie.cyut.edu.tw/dywang/linuxSystem/node81.html

如果以這樣看來, 就是目前的 init會變成 systemd, 也就是說 kernel 載入完成之後的第一個起始的程式是到 systmed 裡面的 system-initctl 嗎???

這樣似乎開機程序過程還是串不起來, 因為我本身不是做這方面,
但是用邏輯程序來看, 應該都是可以相互去 call的概念.....

7/28 13:56:14
應用擴展 工具箱
回覆: 請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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以下就我自己目前理解到的來說明,不見得正確,提供您參考

大致上,開機過程,執行到「/sbin/init」這一個階段,這您應該也理解,

而我在上面「#2」提到的,

================================================================================


執行


file /sbin/init




顯示


/sbin/init: symbolic link to /lib/systemd/systemd




也就是開機過程執行「/sbin/init」,其實就是執行「/lib/systemd/systemd」

爾後的流程就會遵循「systemd」設計的規範,

所以要請您先把以前學的規則暫時忘掉,先熟悉「systemd」的操作規則。


* 維基百科 / init

================================================================================


接著我把以前在這個論壇有整理一些連結,放在「Ubuntu 文件資源 / [索引] 開機流程


我把一些連結貼過來,提供您參考,讓您有個探索的起點。


* Linux systemd 系統服務管理基礎教學與範例
* Linux 建立自訂 Systemd 服務教學與範例
* Node.js 應用程式整合 Systemd 系統服務教學


* Linux 守護進程的啟動方法
* Systemd 入門教程:命令篇
* Systemd 入門教程:實戰篇
* Node 應用的 Systemd 啟動

================================================================================


另外補充一些參考連結

* Systemd 應用
* Debian Wiki / systemd
* Arch Wiki / systemd


================================================================================


以上提供參考


7/28 15:10:50
應用擴展 工具箱
回覆: 請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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另外以下貼上一些資訊,讓您參考,也許您在探索過程中用得到。

* #6 -「Package: systemd」檔案列表
* #7 -「Package: systemd-sysv」檔案列表

7/28 15:23:01
應用擴展 工具箱
回覆: 請問 Ubuntu Server 22.04 啟動程序
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================================================================================

執行下面指令,就會顯示「Package: systemd」安裝那些檔案在系統上。

也就是類似「網頁上」列出的檔案列表



dpkg -L systemd | sort



顯示


/.
/bin
/bin/journalctl
/bin/loginctl
/bin/networkctl
/bin/systemctl
/bin/systemd
/bin/systemd-ask-password
/bin/systemd-escape
/bin/systemd-inhibit
/bin/systemd-machine-id-setup
/bin/systemd-notify
/bin/systemd-sysext
/bin/systemd-sysusers
/bin/systemd-tmpfiles
/bin/systemd-tty-ask-password-agent
/etc
/etc/binfmt.d
/etc/init.d
/etc/kernel
/etc/kernel/install.d
/etc/modules-load.d
/etc/modules-load.d/modules.conf
/etc/sysctl.d
/etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf
/etc/systemd
/etc/systemd/journald.conf
/etc/systemd/logind.conf
/etc/systemd/network
/etc/systemd/networkd.conf
/etc/systemd/pstore.conf
/etc/systemd/resolved.conf
/etc/systemd/sleep.conf
/etc/systemd/system
/etc/systemd/system.conf
/etc/systemd/user
/etc/systemd/user.conf
/etc/tmpfiles.d
/etc/xdg
/etc/xdg/systemd
/etc/xdg/systemd/user
/lib
/lib/lsb
/lib/lsb/init-functions.d
/lib/lsb/init-functions.d/40-systemd
/lib/modprobe.d
/lib/modprobe.d/systemd.conf
/lib/systemd
/lib/systemd/libsystemd-shared-249.so
/lib/systemd/network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-host0.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-ve.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-vz.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-vm-vt.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-adhoc.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-ap.network.example
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-station.network.example
/lib/systemd/resolv.conf
/lib/systemd/system
/lib/systemd/system/autovt@.service
/lib/systemd/system/basic.target
/lib/systemd/system/blockdev@.target
/lib/systemd/system/bluetooth.target
/lib/systemd/system/boot-complete.target
/lib/systemd/system/console-getty.service
/lib/systemd/system/container-getty@.service
/lib/systemd/system/cryptdisks-early.service
/lib/systemd/system/cryptdisks.service
/lib/systemd/system/cryptsetup-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/cryptsetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/ctrl-alt-del.target
/lib/systemd/systemd
/lib/systemd/systemd-ac-power
/lib/systemd/systemd-backlight
/lib/systemd/systemd-binfmt
/lib/systemd/systemd-bless-boot
/lib/systemd/systemd-boot-check-no-failures
/lib/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.hostname1.service
/lib/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.locale1.service
/lib/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.login1.service
/lib/systemd/system/dbus-org.freedesktop.timedate1.service
/lib/systemd/systemd-cgroups-agent
/lib/systemd/systemd-cryptsetup
/lib/systemd/system/debug-shell.service
/lib/systemd/system/default.target
/lib/systemd/system/dev-hugepages.mount
/lib/systemd/system/dev-mqueue.mount
/lib/systemd/systemd-fsck
/lib/systemd/systemd-fsckd
/lib/systemd/systemd-growfs
/lib/systemd/systemd-hibernate-resume
/lib/systemd/systemd-hostnamed
/lib/systemd/systemd-initctl
/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
/lib/systemd/systemd-localed
/lib/systemd/systemd-logind
/lib/systemd/systemd-makefs
/lib/systemd/systemd-modules-load
/lib/systemd/systemd-networkd
/lib/systemd/systemd-networkd-wait-online
/lib/systemd/systemd-network-generator
/lib/systemd/systemd-pstore
/lib/systemd/systemd-quotacheck
/lib/systemd/systemd-random-seed
/lib/systemd/systemd-remount-fs
/lib/systemd/systemd-reply-password
/lib/systemd/systemd-resolved
/lib/systemd/systemd-rfkill
/lib/systemd/systemd-shutdown
/lib/systemd/systemd-sleep
/lib/systemd/systemd-socket-proxyd
/lib/systemd/systemd-sulogin-shell
/lib/systemd/systemd-sysctl
/lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install
/lib/systemd/systemd-timedated
/lib/systemd/systemd-time-wait-sync
/lib/systemd/systemd-update-utmp
/lib/systemd/systemd-user-runtime-dir
/lib/systemd/systemd-user-sessions
/lib/systemd/systemd-veritysetup
/lib/systemd/systemd-volatile-root
/lib/systemd/systemd-xdg-autostart-condition
/lib/systemd/system/emergency.service
/lib/systemd/system/emergency.target
/lib/systemd/system/exit.target
/lib/systemd/system/final.target
/lib/systemd/system/first-boot-complete.target
/lib/systemd/system-generators
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-bless-boot-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-cryptsetup-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-debug-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-fstab-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-getty-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-gpt-auto-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-hibernate-resume-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-rc-local-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-run-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-system-update-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-sysv-generator
/lib/systemd/system-generators/systemd-veritysetup-generator
/lib/systemd/system/getty-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/getty@.service
/lib/systemd/system/getty-static.service
/lib/systemd/system/getty.target
/lib/systemd/system/getty.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/getty.target.wants/getty-static.service
/lib/systemd/system/graphical.target
/lib/systemd/system/graphical.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/graphical.target.wants/systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
/lib/systemd/system/halt.target
/lib/systemd/system/hibernate.target
/lib/systemd/system/hwclock.service
/lib/systemd/system/hybrid-sleep.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-cleanup.service
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-fs.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-parse-etc.service
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-root-device.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-root-device.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-root-device.target.wants/remote-cryptsetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-root-device.target.wants/remote-veritysetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-root-fs.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-switch-root.service
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-switch-root.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd.target
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
/lib/systemd/system/initrd-usr-fs.target
/lib/systemd/system/kexec.target
/lib/systemd/system/kmod.service
/lib/systemd/system/kmod-static-nodes.service
/lib/systemd/system/local-fs-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/local-fs.target
/lib/systemd/system/local-fs.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/machine.slice
/lib/systemd/system/modprobe@.service
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/getty.target
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/systemd-ask-password-wall.path
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/systemd-logind.service
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
/lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/systemd-user-sessions.service
/lib/systemd/system/network-online.target
/lib/systemd/system/network-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/network.target
/lib/systemd/system/nss-lookup.target
/lib/systemd/system/nss-user-lookup.target
/lib/systemd/system/paths.target
/lib/systemd/system/poweroff.target
/lib/systemd/system-preset
/lib/systemd/system-preset/90-systemd.preset
/lib/systemd/system/printer.target
/lib/systemd/system/procps.service
/lib/systemd/system/proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount
/lib/systemd/system/proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount
/lib/systemd/system/quotaon.service
/lib/systemd/system/rc-local.service
/lib/systemd/system/rc-local.service.d
/lib/systemd/system/rc-local.service.d/debian.conf
/lib/systemd/system/rc.service
/lib/systemd/system/rcS.service
/lib/systemd/system/reboot.target
/lib/systemd/system/remote-cryptsetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/remote-fs-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/remote-fs.target
/lib/systemd/system/remote-veritysetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/rescue.service
/lib/systemd/system/rescue.target
/lib/systemd/system/rescue.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/rescue.target.wants/systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
/lib/systemd/system/rpcbind.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel0.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel1.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel1.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel2.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel2.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel4.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel4.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/runlevel6.target
/lib/systemd/system/serial-getty@.service
/lib/systemd/system-shutdown
/lib/systemd/system/shutdown.target
/lib/systemd/system/sigpwr.target
/lib/systemd/system-sleep
/lib/systemd/system/sleep.target
/lib/systemd/system/slices.target
/lib/systemd/system/smartcard.target
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/systemd-initctl.socket
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/systemd-journald-audit.socket
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/systemd-journald-dev-log.socket
/lib/systemd/system/sockets.target.wants/systemd-journald.socket
/lib/systemd/system/sound.target
/lib/systemd/system/suspend.target
/lib/systemd/system/suspend-then-hibernate.target
/lib/systemd/system/swap.target
/lib/systemd/system/sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/cryptsetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/dev-hugepages.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/dev-mqueue.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/kmod-static-nodes.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/sys-kernel-config.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/sys-kernel-debug.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/sys-kernel-tracing.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-ask-password-console.path
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-binfmt.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-boot-system-token.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-journald.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-journal-flush.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-machine-id-commit.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-modules-load.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-random-seed.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-sysctl.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-sysusers.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/systemd-update-utmp.service
/lib/systemd/system/sysinit.target.wants/veritysetup.target
/lib/systemd/system/sys-kernel-config.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sys-kernel-debug.mount
/lib/systemd/system/sys-kernel-tracing.mount
/lib/systemd/system/syslog.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-ask-password-console.path
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-ask-password-console.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-ask-password-wall.path
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-ask-password-wall.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-backlight@.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-binfmt.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-bless-boot.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-boot-check-no-failures.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-boot-system-token.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-exit.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-fsckd.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-fsckd.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-fsck-root.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-fsck@.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-halt.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-hibernate-resume@.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-hibernate.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-hostnamed.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-hybrid-sleep.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-initctl.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-initctl.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald-audit.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald-dev-log.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald@.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald@.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journald-varlink@.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-journal-flush.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-kexec.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-localed.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-localed.service.d
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-localed.service.d/locale-gen.conf
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-logind.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-machine-id-commit.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-modules-load.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-network-generator.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-poweroff.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-pstore.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-quotacheck.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-random-seed.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-reboot.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-remount-fs.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-resolved.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-rfkill.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-rfkill.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-suspend.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-suspend-then-hibernate.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-sysctl.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-sysext.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-sysusers.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-timedated.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-time-wait-sync.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-tmpfiles-clean.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-update-utmp.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-user-sessions.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-volatile-root.service
/lib/systemd/system/system-systemd\x2dcryptsetup.slice
/lib/systemd/system/system-update-cleanup.service
/lib/systemd/system/system-update-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/system-update.target
/lib/systemd/system/timers.target
/lib/systemd/system/timers.target.wants
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/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-tmpfiles-clean.timer.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-udev-settle.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-update-utmp.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-update-utmp-runlevel.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-update-utmp.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-user-sessions.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-user-sessions.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-veritysetup.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-veritysetup-generator.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-veritysetup@.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-volatile-root.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-volatile-root.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-xdg-autostart-generator.8.gz
/usr/share/pkgconfig
/usr/share/pkgconfig/systemd.pc
/usr/share/polkit-1
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.hostname1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.locale1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.login1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.network1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.resolve1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.systemd1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.timedate1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d
/usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d/systemd-networkd.rules
/usr/share/systemd
/usr/share/systemd/kbd-model-map
/usr/share/systemd/language-fallback-map
/usr/share/systemd/tmp.mount
/usr/share/zsh
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_bootctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_busctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_hostnamectl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_journalctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_kernel-install
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_localectl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_loginctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_networkctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_resolvectl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_sd_hosts_or_user_at_host
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_sd_outputmodes
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_sd_unit_files
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemctl
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-analyze
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-delta
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-inhibit
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-path
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-run
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_systemd-tmpfiles
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_timedatectl
/var
/var/lib
/var/lib/polkit-1
/var/lib/polkit-1/localauthority
/var/lib/polkit-1/localauthority/10-vendor.d
/var/lib/polkit-1/localauthority/10-vendor.d/systemd-networkd.pkla
/var/lib/systemd




================================================================================

執行


dpkg -L systemd | grep network | sort



顯示


/bin/networkctl
/etc/systemd/network
/etc/systemd/networkd.conf
/lib/systemd/network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-host0.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-ve.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-container-vz.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-vm-vt.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-adhoc.network
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-ap.network.example
/lib/systemd/network/80-wifi-station.network.example
/lib/systemd/systemd-networkd
/lib/systemd/systemd-networkd-wait-online
/lib/systemd/systemd-network-generator
/lib/systemd/system/network-online.target
/lib/systemd/system/network-pre.target
/lib/systemd/system/network.target
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd.socket
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
/lib/systemd/system/systemd-network-generator.service
/usr/lib/sysusers.d/systemd-network.conf
/usr/share/bash-completion/completions/networkctl
/usr/share/dbus-1/system.d/org.freedesktop.network1.conf
/usr/share/dbus-1/system-services/org.freedesktop.network1.service
/usr/share/man/man1/networkctl.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/networkd.conf.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/networkd.conf.d.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/systemd.network.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-networkd.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-networkd.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-networkd-wait-online.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-networkd-wait-online.service.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-network-generator.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/systemd-network-generator.service.8.gz
/usr/share/polkit-1/actions/org.freedesktop.network1.policy
/usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d/systemd-networkd.rules
/usr/share/zsh/vendor-completions/_networkctl
/var/lib/polkit-1/localauthority/10-vendor.d/systemd-networkd.pkla




================================================================================

7/28 15:27:09
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================================================================================

執行下面指令


dpkg -S /sbin/init



顯示


systemd-sysv: /sbin/init



表示「/sbin/init」這個檔案,是來自於「Package: systemd-sysv

================================================================================


執行下面指令,查詢「Package: systemd-sysv」,安裝哪些檔案在系統上


dpkg -L systemd-sysv | sort



顯示


/.
/sbin
/sbin/halt
/sbin/init
/sbin/poweroff
/sbin/reboot
/sbin/runlevel
/sbin/shutdown
/sbin/telinit
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/systemd-sysv
/usr/share/doc/systemd-sysv/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/systemd-sysv/copyright
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man1
/usr/share/man/man1/init.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man8
/usr/share/man/man8/halt.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/poweroff.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/reboot.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/runlevel.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/shutdown.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/telinit.8.gz




================================================================================

7/28 15:34:15
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謝謝回覆, 看來很多訊息, 您說的部份會在花時間 study一下

大致上,開機過程,執行到「/sbin/init」這一個階段,這您應該也理解
==> 這邊還不是很清楚, 目前頭腦理解到的只有在 MBR之後, 選擇到 Linux之後, 就會進入到 /boot下的 vmlinuz; 在 /boot 下兩個主要檔案,

一個是 vmlinuz, 一個是 initrd.img 不確定在啟動時候會指向以哪個為主

1.不確定自己這樣的說法是否正確,因為以系統概念應該是 sequencial的方式, 即便是 concurrent, 也應該能夠 trace back
2.先前 /boot 後載入 kernel,

https://dywang.csie.cyut.edu.tw/dywang/linuxSystem/node81.html
這邊文章有提到 載入後第一支程式為 init, 所以 PID是 1這個說法也合理

但是在目前的 Ubuntu 是不是就是 /sbin/init 為 PID的 1
不確定是不是這樣理解, 因為 /sbin/init 是二進位, 所以不太知道要怎麼去 trace back回去, 接下來的程序 call ......大概這就是目前我開始卡住的地方

https://www.796t.com/article.php?id=237300 在這一篇文章提及
核心被載入後,第一個執行的程式便是/sbin/init,該檔案會讀取/etc/inittab檔案 ==> 所以對應到 Ubuntu是哪一個檔案?
==> 所以您解釋的是這一段的過程嗎?
file /sbin/init --> /lin/systemd/systemd -->
/lib/systemd/systemd: ELF 64-bit LSB pie executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, BuildID[sha1]=968ffe3f6622fa1919d1f1f119041e469ae98694, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, stripped ==> 這邊就看不懂是跳到哪裡去 >_<


因為目前很多訊息片段要串起來, 也要邏輯性判斷, 才能比較正確理解

7/29 11:36:27
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收到,我覺得我好像讓您更混亂了。

整個開機流程,我也不是每個階段,都有很完整的了解,

我只有理解大概的脈落,

有些階段我也還暫時擱著,還沒有深入去探索。

所以我也沒有完整的論述,可以回覆您,

就算我知道,這要寫起來,可能是一大串。

不過,您別急,

以我自己的經驗是從一些片段,一些片段理解起,

慢慢就會拼湊出全貌。

所以我會建議您先去看我在「#4」列的參考連結,

也許當您理解那些連結所講的內容,您的疑問,也許就自然減少了。



下面回覆,我以我了解到的,針對你的疑問來回覆。

我會分段回覆,所以待續...

7/29 14:30:14
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Jimmy.W 寫到:
謝謝回覆, 看來很多訊息, 您說的部份會在花時間 study一下

大致上,開機過程,執行到「/sbin/init」這一個階段,這您應該也理解
==> 這邊還不是很清楚, 目前頭腦理解到的只有在 MBR之後, 選擇到 Linux之後, 就會進入到 /boot下的 vmlinuz; 在 /boot 下兩個主要檔案,

一個是 vmlinuz, 一個是 initrd.img 不確定在啟動時候會指向以哪個為主




關於「vmlinuz」,我沒去深究,我並不懂。

關於「initrd.img」,若您有興趣想要探索的話,

可以參考我在另一個討論串「#5 - 回覆: 夾帶 microcode 的 initrd 解法」提到的

透過「initramfs-extract」將「/boot/initrd.img」解開

您就可以「探索」其中的「init」,這個檔案就是「Shell Script」。

您可以直接用純文字編輯打開它,並且閱讀它裡面的內容


待續...

7/29 14:50:55
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